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“HYPOXIA MEDICAL JOURNAL”


2005

ABSTRACTS OF  ARTICLES, PUBLISHED IN 2005 (V. 13, No. No. 1-4)

Tsvetkova A.M., Tkatchouk E.N. ADAPTATION CONCEPT IN PRACTICAL MEDICINE: INTERVAL HYPOXIC TRAINING // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 1-2. P. 2-9. The authors of this review try to unite the philosophy and notions of the adaptation concept with the tasks of practical medicine. Based on the adaptation concept and findings of their own clinical experimental studies, they offer a diagnostic approach and criteria for evaluating body status. The method of interval hypoxic training is a result of realization of the adaptation concept in medical practice. Key words: adaptation concept, adaptation reaction, oxygen transporting system adaptation complex, interval hypoxic training.

Khromov A.S., Stefanov A.V. CORRECTION OF CIRCULATORY AND METABOLIC DISORDERS BY  PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE LIPOSOMES IN RATS WITH HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 1-2. P. 10-14. Acute massive blood loss from a. carotis comm. (2.5 ml/100 g, 2 ml/min) caused the development of decompensated hemorrhagic shock in adult narcotized male Wistar rats. Isovolumic compensation of this blood loss by normal saline led to short-term stabilization of hemodynamics, manifesting by maintenance of mean arterial pressure at the expense of peripheral vasoconstriction and decrease of oxygen capacity of the blood and oxygen consumption. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and increase of blood lactate level were observed. A total of 33% animals died in this group. Isovolumic compensation of the blood loss by suspension of phosphatidylcholine liposomes in normal saline (5 mg lipids/100 g) promoted normalization and stabilization of the studied parameters of circulation. Respiration rate decreased, respiratory volume increased, while the decrease in oxygen capacity of the blood and in oxygen consumption were less pronounced. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and lactate in the plasma were lower. Hence, addition of phosphatidylcholine liposomes to transfusion medium promoted a better correction of acute massive blood loss. Key words: hemorrhagic shock, circulation, respiration, liposomes, rats.

Martin Burtscher, Otmar Pachinger, Igor Ehrenbourg, Gunther Mitterbauer, Martin Faulhaber, Reinhard Puhringer, Elena Tkatchouk INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA INCREASES EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN ELDERLY MEN WITH AND WITHOUT CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 1-2. P. 15-22.  (Reprinted from the International Journal of Cardiology 96 (2004) 247-254, Martin Burtscher, Otmar Pachinger, Igor Ehrenbourg, Gunther Mitterbauer, Martin Faulhaber, Reinhard Puhringer and Elena Tkatchouk, Intermittent Hypoxia Increases Exercise Tolerance in Elderly Men with and without Coronary Artery Disease. © 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. With permission from Elsevier.)  Background: Intermittent hypoxia has been suggested to increase exercise tolerance by enhancing stress resistance and improving oxygen delivery. Because the improvement of exercise tolerance reduces mortality in the elderly with and without coronary artery disease intermittent hypoxia might be a valuable preventive and therapeutic tool. However, controlled studies are lacking. Methods and results: Sixteen males (50-70 years, 8 with and 8 without prior myocardial infarction) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive 15 sessions of passive intermittent hypoxia (hypoxia group) or normoxia (control group) within 3 weeks. For the hypoxia group each session consisted of three to five hypoxic (14-10% oxygen) periods (3-5 min) with 3-min normoxic intervals. Controls inhaled only normoxic air in the same way. Exercise tests were performed before and after the 3-week breathing program. After 3 weeks of intermittent hypoxia peak oxygen consumption had increased compared to normoxic conditions (+6.2% vs. - 3%, p<0.001). This improvement was closely related to the enhanced arterial oxygen content after hypoxia (r=0.9, p<0.001). Both higher haemoglobin concentration and less arterial oxygen desaturation during exercise contributed to the increase in arterial oxygen content. During sub-maximal exercise (cycling at 1 W/kg) heart rate, systolic blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and the rating of perceived exertion were diminished after intermittent hypoxia compared to control conditions (all p<0.05). Changes in responses to exercise after intermittent hypoxia were similar in subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Three weeks of passive short-term intermittent hypoxic exposures increased aerobic capacity and exercise tolerance in elderly men with and without coronary artery disease. Key words: intermittent hypoxia, exercise tolerance, aerobic capacity, elderly, coronary artery disease.

Shchupakova A.N. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF INTERVAL HYPOXIC TRAINING  IN THE TREATMENT  AND REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC  ABDOMINAL ISCHEMIA CAUSED BY ATHEROSCLEROSIS  // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 1-2. P. 23-27. The efficiency of interval hypoxic training (IHT) in combined therapy of chronic abdominal ischemia was studied. A total of 66 patients with chronic abdominal ischemia caused by atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and unpaired visceral arteries were examined. All patients received traditional drug therapy. Thirty-six patients received a course of IHT in addition to combined therapy. The results indicate that IHT increased the efficiency of traditional therapy of cardiovascular diseases, decelerated the progress of visceral atherosclerosis and thus reduced the risk of vascular damage. This was confirmed by a significant attenuation of clinical symptoms of the disease (chronic abdominal ischemia, coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension). The results of treatment were retained during 6 months. Key words: chronic abdominal ischemia, visceral atherosclerosis, interval hypoxic training.

Zhukova A.G., Sazontova T.G. HYPOXIA INDUCIBLE FACTOR- HIF-1a: FUNCTION AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 3-4. P. 34-43.
Review of publications of the recent decade and analysis of the authorsХ findings are devoted to HIF-1a transcription factor; induction of its synthesis is regulated by the level of oxygen and its active forms. Data on the structure of the transcription factor, its subunits, HIF-1a regulation under conditions of normoxia, hypoxia, and increased formation of active oxygen forms are presented. The role of induction of HIF-1a and HIF-regulated proteins induction in intracellular redox signaling and the maintenance of cell homeostasis under conditions of hypoxia is discussed. The authorsХ data on the time course of this transcription factor induction after acute hypoxia and stress, correlation of its level with changes in expression of urgent response defense proteins are presented. Different levels of defense proteins (HIF-1a, HOx-1, and HSP70) in response to ROS signal were observed in the myocardium, brain, and liver 3, 6, and 12 h after acute hypoxia. Correlations were detected between HIF-1a and HOx-1 induction in the heart and liver, but not brain, and of HIF-1a and HSP70 in all three organs.
Key words: HIF-1a transcription factor, HSP70, HSP32,  antioxidant enzymes, redox signaling, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species, heart, liver, brain, lungs.

Bobyleva O.V., Glazachev O.S. MODERATE DOSED HYPOXIC HYPOXIA: EFFECT ON THE TIME COURSE OF HUMAN OPERATOR ACTIVITY AND ITS PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL SUPPORT // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 3-4. P. 44-49.
Time course of efficient purposeful operator activity under the effect of exposure to moderate dosed (10% O2, 10 min) hypoxic hypoxia and psychophysiological correlations of efficient work were evaluated in 46 healthy volunteers (men aged 17-28 years). Operator activity became more effective after 10-min inhalation of HGM-10. EEG showed mobilizing effects of moderate hypoxia on the CNS activity, manifesting by heart rythm variability (HRV) decreased slow-wave activity and increased beta-rhythm power. HRV parameters showed that inhalations of HGM-10 activated the mechanisms regulating the cardiorespiratory system; the activity of the sympathetic nervous system increased. Discontinuation of hypoxia led to increase of the parasympathetic effects. Presumably, restructuring of psychophysiological support, caused by short-term exposure to moderate dosed hypoxic hypoxia, serves as a ТprerequisiteУ for higher efficiency of purposeful operator activity. Specific individual typological reactions of subjects sensitive and resistant to hypoxia were detected. Increase in the efficiency of operator activity after exposure to HGM-10 in volunteers sensitive to hypoxia was associated with specific psychophysiological restructuring.
Key words: hypoxic hypoxia, CNS, EEG, heart rythm variability, human operator activity.

Belyavsky N.N., Kuznetsov V.I., Likhachyov S.A. CHANGES IN THE P300 COMPONENT OF VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS IN PATIENTS WITH TRANSITORY ISCHEMIC ATTACKS UNDER THE EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIC TRAINING // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 3-4. P. 50-53.
Changes in the amplitude and time parameters of VEP P300 component were evaluated in 35 patients with transitory ischemic attacks (TIA) receiving a course of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) in parallel with drug therapy, 25 patients with TIA receiving drug therapy alone, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. VEP P300 component latency was increased and amplitude decreased in patients receiving pathogenetic drug therapy alone during 2 weeks after TIA caused by arterial hypertension and atherosclerotic involvement of the cerebral arteries; this indicated decreased resource and velocity of mental processes. The decrease in VEP P300 component amplitude during 3 weeks after the attack indicated a decrease in the volume (resource) of cognitive functions. The cerebral frontal compartments were most of all involved in the patho- and sanogenetic reactions of the CNS to transitory ischemic injury of the cerebral structures in TIA. Use of IHT in combined therapy of patients after TIA in the presence of arterial hypertension and cerebral atherosclerosis led to normalization of VEP P300 component latency during week 2 and of its amplitude during week 3 after the attack. This indicated a positive therapeutic effect of IHT on the volume and velocity of mental processes in patients after TIA.
Key words: P300 component of visual evoked potentials, transitory ischemic attacks, IHT.

Prokofyev A.B., TinХkov A.N., Nikonorov A.A. EFFECT OF A COURSE OF ADAPTATION TO INTERVAL HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA ON SERUM LIPID SPECTRUM IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION // Hypoxia Med. J. 2005. V. 13. N 3-4. P. 54-57.
The effect of adaptation to low-pressure chamber interval hypoxia (PCIHA) on the serum lipid spectrum was studied in 30 patients with myocardial infarction during cicatrization in comparison with exercise therapy in 15 patients (control). Adaptation therapy led to a significant reduction of the levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, and atherogenicity index. A course of PCIHA was associated with a significant decrease in the blood levels of apoproteins A and B (by 8 and 17%, respectively) in experimental group, this being paralleled by an increase in the ApoA/ApoB ratio, indicating a lower probability of uncontrolled transport of cholesterol into the vascular intima. In controls the ApoA/ApoB ratio decreased, despite positive shifts in the studied parameters of cholesterol metabolism, this, no doubt, indicating the absence of positive molecular shifts in the metabolic pathways of cholesterol metabolism and hence, persisting high risk of further development of atherosclerosis.
Key words: myocardial infarction, adaptation, hypoxia, cholesterol, apoproteins.


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